Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.
Example: he says – it is said
Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.
Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.
The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).
Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.
PRACTICE: Personal Passive
Use Personal Passive.
- People know that she is a good swimmer.
- They say that Francis is in hospital.
- They think that the children are in bed.
- People believe that the robber has worked in the bank.
- People believe that nuclear power stations are dangerous.
- His collegues thought that he was on holiday.
- People know that cars pollute the environment.
- They suppose that the new product will come out soon.
- They found that the mission was impossible.
- They believe that she will win a gold medal.