viernes, 15 de enero de 2016

orthography (spelling) for the simple past ending of regular verbs

There are several irregularities regarding orthography (spelling) for the simple past ending of regular verbs. Similarly, there are different ways to pronounce this ending. See the lesson on pronunciation of the Simple Past –ed ending to learn more.
For regular verbs ending in the vowel -e, add d.


base
form
 simple
past
hatehated
seizeseized
hopehoped
assumeassumed
tietied
freefreed

For the very few English verbs that end in a vowel other than -e, add ed.
base
form
 simple
past
skiskied
echoechoed
Exceptions: The verbs DO and GO are irregular: See below.


For regular verbs that end in a vowel+y, add ed.
base
form
 simple
past
playplayed
decaydecayed
surveysurveyed
enjoyenjoyed
Exceptions: The verbs SAY and BUY are irregular: See below.


For regular verbs that end in a consonant +y, change the y to i and add ed.
base
form
 simple
past
crycried
dirtydirtied
magnifymagnified
Exception: The verb FLY is irregular: See below.


For regular verbs ending in a consonant + vowel + consonant, double the final consonant before adding -ed.
base
form
 simple
past
damdammed
begbegged
planplanned
stripstripped

In American English, when the regular verb has more than one syllable and the syllable stress is on the final syllable, the final consonant is doubled.
base
form
 simple
past
 incorrect
deferdeferreddefered
regretregrettedregreted
reshipreshippedreshiped
compelcompelledcompeled

In these verbs, the syllable stress is not on the final syllable so the consonant is not doubled.
base
form
 simple
past
 incorrect
orbitorbitedorbitted
listenlistenedlistenned
traveltraveledtravelled
consider


Here are examples with regular verbs in the simple present and the simple past.


simple present simple past
I walk to school.I walked to school.
She works downtown.She worked downtown.
They help on Tuesday.They helped on Tuesday.
He asks a lot of questions.He asked a lot of questions.



Irregular verbs form the past tense by a change in orthography edspelling).

base
form
 simple
past
buybought
dodid
flyflew
forgetforgot
lightlit
gowent
saysaid
consideredconsiderred